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Sep 18, 2014

A recent on-line survey queried fourty-four Obstetrician-Gynecologists (OB-GYNs) in British Columbia to learn more about the needs of physicians who treat women who have endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Physicians reported that women who present with endometroisis or chronic pelvic pain usually require more visits than other patients, for reasons including medical and pain management, lack of a clear diagnosis, and lack of improvement in condition. Evaluation techniques utilized by the physicians often included laparoscopy and ultrasound, and despite these practices, the OB-GYNS reported challenges in making a diagnosis or successfully treating their patients with CPP. In fact, survey results indicated that 5% of the respondents were able to diagnose a patient for a cause of pelvic pain in > 70% of patients. Most of the physicians reported that less than half of the women treated had a good response to interventions. Although the highest rate of referral for these providers was to another OB-GYN specializing in pelvic pain, nearly 60% of the time a referral to physical therapy was reported. 

 

 

Although some of the narrative comments encountered in this survey were positive, including one physician's report of having "…good success with physiotherapy…", more often the providers expressed frustration and annoyance when faced with not only the challenges of diagnosis and treatment, but also the poor compensation and the longer visits required for counseling and teaching of patients. In addition to wanting more clear guidelines on diagnosis and management of female CPP, physicians expressed interest in having group educational sessions for patients, and more resources such as educational brochures on self-management for patients.

 

 

How can pelvic rehabilitation providers fill in this knowledge gap? I recall asking a referring provider if he was pleased with his patients' rehabilitation outcomes, and he expressed such a relief that I was taking the "dregs of the practice." He meant nothing disparaging about the patients themselves, he explained, just that when these patients walked in the door he felt a sinking feeling because he did not know what to do for them. Now, he reported, these same patients were returning from a pelvic rehabilitation referral and excitedly reporting on progress they had made. So many physicians and other referring providers still do not understand the scope of the patient populations that we can treat in pelvic rehabilitation. We can provide a necessary bridge between the challenge of diagnosing and medically treating chronic pelvic pain and the rehabilitation approach that addresses the chronic pain issues. Differential diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain from a rehabilitation standpoint is a skill set  that every therapist must continually improve upon. If you are interested in learning more about these skills, sign up for faculty member Peter Philip's continuing education course Differential Diagnostics of Chronic Pelvic Pain next month in Connecticut. 


Sep 15, 2014

This is a guest blog-post by Herman & Wallace faculty member Jennafer Vande Vegte, MSPT, BCIA-PMB, PRPC

Erica Vitek MOT, OTR, BCB-PMD, PRPC

Stress. We all have it. We all deal with it in one way or another. Sometimes stress comes and goes quickly while at other times it lasts and lasts. Research shows that at times, short bouts of stress can be good, even helpful. The surge of adrenalin and cortisol we get staying up past midnight to finish that assignment before it is due the next morning can power our brains to accomplish a task about which we procrastinated because it seemed burdensome or boring. We are very grateful for the extra burst of speed we feel in our legs as we run to catch our naughty three year old as they run off into a busy street. After these stressful events are over, our bodies recover but chronic stress can affect our bodies in negative ways and our bodies may need help finding a way to cope.

Research shows one main pathway that stress takes in the body is the Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal Axis or HPA axis for short. In the HPA axis there is a systematic release of chemical messengers that create a cascade of effects in our bodies. The HPA axis governs our response to stress and also affects our energy levels, digestion, sexual functioning, immune system and other body processes. We don't even need the research to tell us this because we have all experienced it firsthand.

Unfortunately when stress in any form does not go away, our bodies may not find the way back to homeostasis and chronic issues can develop. Research also points out that the function of our HPA axis could have been impaired during our development. Maternal stress can affect a developing baby in utero, and trauma or stress in infancy or early childhood can influence the function of our stress response into adulthood.

Interestingly, there are also gender differences in how stress influences behavior. In their article on the female response to stress, authors Taylor et al. describe the effects of oxytocin on the HPA axis. Oxytocin is released during nurturing behaviors and helps to decrease the activity in the HPA axis. The authors postulate that estrogen may be one reason women cope and respond to stress differently than men. Mothers comfort their babies when they cry and help sooth them. This action is beneficial to both mom and baby. Friends offer comfort with a listening ear, a hug, and emotional support. John Gray in his book Venus on Fire Mars on Ice also notes that oxytocin is released when we feel loved, appreciated and heard. As physical therapists working one-on-one with our patients we are also in a position to listen to and validate our patients which may aid in combating their stress response. Joining a support group may also be of benefit.

How do you respond to stress in your life? Dartmouth researchers found their students drink more caffeine, sleep less, and consume more alcohol. Exactly the WRONG responses when you look at the physiological effects on the HPA axis.. According to the article, "Leproult et al. found that plasma cortisol levels were elevated by up to 45 percent after sleep deprivation, an increase that has implications including immune compromise, cognitive impairment, and metabolic disruption." Caffeine and alcohol also increase cortisol release.


Aug 28, 2014

One of the questions we frequently receive at the Institute is "Do you have any research about ___________?" At times, therapists are looking for information that can help with patient care, or they might be looking for support in a claims denial letter, or foundational material for a presentation. If you have been taught how to find articles, this may seem like a simple task. Many of us therapists went to school when the only use of a computer was for word processing, if we were lucky enough to have progressed from the typewriter or even the electronic typewriter. (Imagine no Google, no Wikipedia, and no Amazon to purchase textbooks!) There are basic search skills that can be shared so that every person interested in a particular topic can find recent articles in free search engines. While the full article may not be available, many times you will have access to full articles that synthesize recent works. (One website that you can use that offers full text article access is PubMed Central.) If you are not interested in reading articles, but prefer to read a scholarly summary of a health topic, check out www.uptodate.com, where you can subscribe to have full access to excellent evidence-based summaries. You can read through the reference lists on the site as well to see if there is a resource that you want to track down.

 

One method of finding articles is to go to www.googlescholar.com. In the search bar, type in the topic you are interested in, such as "urinary incontinence." You will then be provided with a list of all articles that have urinary and/or incontinence in the title or in the key words of the research. An even more refined way to conduct your search is by using Boolean terms, in which you connect your search words by "AND" or other key terms. To see this in action, let's say you want to know if there is any research about urinary incontinence and prostatectomy surgery. Try completing a google scholar search by typing in the following: "urinary incontinence" AND "prostatectomy". (Be sure to use the quotation marks and type the word "AND" in capital letters.) You will see that you come up with some very nice articles about the specific topic you searched. To make sure you are looking at recent articles, go to the left side of the search page and under the words "Any time" choose an option such as "Since 2010" so that you are seeing articles from within the last 5 years. Next, maybe you want to know if there is evidence for rehabilitation. Add the word rehabilitation, like this: "urinary incontinence" AND "prostatectomy" AND "rehabilitation". You will see that you now have even more results specific to rehabilitation of the condition. On the right side of the page you might see a link that starts with [PDF] where, if you click on it, you will usually be brought to the full article rather than just the abstract. If you see an article that you think fits your search, you can also click on "Related articles" located under the brief description of the article.

 

Being able to look up articles serves many purposes, including staying updated on patient care, and discussing evidence with peers, providers, and patients. Another valuable reason to find your own research is when studying for certification exams such as the Pelvic Rehabilitation Practitioner Certification (PRPC). On the PRPC certification page on our website, you can find a list of some articles for which we have added links. (Remember that there is no need to print out articles anymore! Save a tree and simply save the articles as a PDF file. You can name the article by the author's last name, year and main topic, and store in a folder on your computer so it is easy to access- no file drawer required!) If you are thinking about taking the PRPC exam, there is no time like the present to get your application put together! The deadline for applying is October 1 of this year, with the test taking place in the first couple weeks of November. Personally, I have enjoyed reading the blog posts introducing therapists who have earned their PRPC title- the reasons for seeking the distinction are very interesting and meaningful. We would love to see your name on the list of certified therapists, so check out the details on the website and contact us if you have any questions about the PRPC application process!


Aug 07, 2014

Hip

In pelvic rehab, if you ask therapists from around the country, you will most often hear that patients with pelvic dysfunction are seen once per week. This is in contrast to many other physical therapy plans of care, so what gives? Perhaps one of the things to consider is that most patients of pelvic rehab are not seen in the acute stages of their condition, whether the condition is perineal pain, constipation, tailbone pain, or incontinence, for example. 

The literature is rich with evidence supporting the facts that physicians are unaware of, unprepared for, or uncomfortable with conversations about treatment planning for patients who have continence issues or pelvic pain. The research also tells us that patients don't bring up pelvic dysfunctions, due to lack of awareness for available treatment, or due to embarrassment, or due to being told that their dysfunction is "normal" after having a baby or as a result of aging. So between the providers not talking about, and patients not bringing up pelvic dysfunctions, we have a huge population of patients who are not accessing timely care. 

 

 

What else is it about pelvic rehab that therapists are scheduling patients once a week? Is it that the patient is driving a great distance for care because there are not enough of us to go around? Do the pelvic floor muscles have differing principles for recovery in relation to basic strengthening concepts? Or is the reduced frequency per week influenced by the fact that many patients are instructed in behavioral strategies that may take a bit of time to re-train? 

 


Jun 03, 2014

Abnormal hip joint development causes 25-50% of all hip disease, according to an article by Goldstein and colleagues on hip dysplasia in the skeletally mature patient. An acetabulum that is dysplastic tends to be shallow and anteverted while the dysplastic femur tends to have a small femoral head and an increased neck shaft angle. These abnormalities cause increased joint contact pressures and lead to joint breakdown in the hip, and are associated with issues such as altered hip and knee biomechanics, hip instability, hip impingement, and labral or chondral dysfunction.

 

 

Developmentally, the altered joint surface contact also affects acetabular development: the well-formed contact pressure in healthy hip development helps to deepen the acetabulum. The shape and position of the acetabulum and femoral head will also influence the relative angle of the femoral neck, represented as retroversion or anteversion. Soft tissue changes occur in response to the altered bony mechanics that affect length-tension curves in the muscles and therefore affect muscle performance. Because of the primary and secondary dysfunctions that can occur with hip dysplasia, early recognition of hip dysfunction is important. 

 

 

Measurements for hip position are easy to implement in the clinic and can include Craig's Test for femoral anteversion/retroversion. Treatment approaches focusing on hip abduction strengthening have been demonstrated to improve hip stability in patients with dysplastic hip. With shared structures including muscles between the hip and pelvis, pelvic rehabilitation providers must be able to assess the hip's influence on conditions of pelvic pain or other dysfunctions. To learn about detailed examination and treatment of the hip, there is still time to register for the Institute's upcoming continuing education course instructed by Ginger Garner.


May 22, 2014

This post was written by H&W instructor Lila Abbate PT, DPT, MS, OCS. Lila will be instructing the course that she wrote on "Coccyx Pain" in New Hampshire in September.

 

Allison Ariail

“Sit up tall, stand up straight” were comments we heard from our teachers and our caregivers.  Do you find that you are saying that now to your patients?  Postural correction can go beyond just preventing neck and low back pain.  For a women’s health therapist, improved posture may help our patients prevent uterine prolapse or reduce coccyx pain.

 

Lind, Lucente and Kohn published a study back in 1996 titled Thoracic Kyphosis and the Prevalence of Advanced Uterine Prolapse. They determined that, in patients with uterine prolapse, the degree of thoracic kyphosis was about 13 degrees higher than in the 48 matched controls.1 Hodges, in the chapter titled “Chronic Low Back and Coccygeal Pain” in Clinical Reasoning for Manual Therapists, presents a case of a 39 year old woman with poor posture who has reproducible coccygeal pain, despite a coccygectomy, with palpation of her L4 segment.  This poor posture perpetuates nerve and muscle dysfunction along with decreased and inappropriate muscle firing patterns that have created this long-term condition. 

 


May 15, 2014

Allison Ariail

 

This post was written by H&W instructor Lila Abbate PT, DPT, MS, OCS. Lila will be instructing Pelvic Floor Level 3 with Institute founder Holly Herman in San Diego at the end of this month! Sign up for the few remaining seats left in this popular course!

 

When treating your patient who has undergone a pelvic reconstruction in the not-so-distant past, does the mesh controversy come to your mind?  Is the effect of the mesh causing your patient this dysfunction and is she complaining of urinary urgency, urinary frequency, or pelvic pain? Understanding pelvic muscle dysfunction, as pelvic rehabilitation providers do, can put us in a good position to help our patients, as well as to help our physicians with this oftentimes litigious issue. 

 

Urogynecologists, gynecologists, urologists, or any surgeon who deals in the business of female sexual medicine and pelvic reconstruction seems to have been put in a position to defend their stance on the use of mesh when working with patients who present with any degree of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), be it complicated or simple.  The decision to utilize mesh is now made with greater emphasis on education for the patient who is undergoing the procedure. 


Apr 10, 2014

 

back

 

Research completed by medical faculty of Heidelberg University in Germany aimed to better understand the characteristics of pain that can be caused by different structures or tissues within the low back. Is the information gained applicable to all layers of tissues in the body? If so, how does that assist with our structural evaluation and interventions? If not, how do various body regions reflect the findings of this study?

 

 

Researchers injected saline into tissues of the back of 12 healthy subjects at differing layers of depth and tissue; the injections were guided by ultrasound. (This method of inducing muscle pain has been utilized and refined since the 1930's.) The authors describe prior studies indicating that thoracolumbar fascia is innervated by free nerve endings, and that lumbar dorsal horn neurons receive nociceptive input from fascia; these connections are theorized to relate to fascia as a potential cause of low back pain. 


Mar 31, 2014

 

Ramona C Horton, MPT

This post was written by guest blogger, H&W instructor Ramona Horton, MPT. Ramona teaches the Visceral Mobilization series of courses, as well as Myofascial Release for Pelvic Dysfunction course.


When I first began working as a pelvic floor PT in the early 90’s (the 1990’s that is), I spent a great deal of time marketing my program to physicians with less than stellar results. Sure, I got the odd referral here and there, but they were mostly the desperation patients that had run out of options. Not to be daunted by lack of success, I opted to present my message directly to the public; I took my “dog and pony show” on the road to senior health fairs, medical study groups and even civic organizations. Any group that was willing to put their comfort level aside and talk about their nether regions was fair game. Over time, the word got out to the physicians (mostly through their patients); our program grew and the need for marketing became a distant memory.

 

While reading a recent blog post on the subject of students in the pelvic floor rehab clinic by HW faculty member Bridgid Ellingson, I reflected on my current relationship with students in that same setting. Although I have had the traditional senior PT students, I am currently working with those of other medical professions. Yes, it seems the world has come full circle; one of those physicians I annoyed incessantly 20+ years ago until she started sending me patients is now serving as a preceptor for several medical schools. She supervises 4th year medical and PA students for their OB-GYN rotation. During this 6 week rotation, they have clinic hours, deliver babies, observe surgeries and spend a day with me in a pelvic rehab clinic. I try to arrange my schedule to have both male and female patients, a full new patient evaluation, sEMG session, manual therapy, use of RTUS imaging, and exercise programs.


Mar 22, 2014

Brigid Ellingson, MPT, OCS

This blog post was written by faculty member Bridgid Ellingson, DPT, MPT, OCS, BCB-PMD. Bridgid is a private practice owner in the Chicago area and she is an instructor for the Institute's pelvic floor course series Level 2B course.


For years I resisted taking a physical therapy student into my clinic for their final rotation.  The traditional physical therapy curriculum does not adequately prepare a student for the experience and I do not believe that physical therapy for the pelvic floor is entry level work.  However, I recently had a particularly motivated student convince me to give it a try and I’d like to share my experience to help prepare other clinicians interested in taking students. 

 

I first reached out to physical therapists in the community for advice- there were very few in the private clinic setting who had taken students.  I was advised to interview the student to make sure she was a good fit.   I was also advised to set realistic expectations with the student and the advisor- I could not guarantee how much hands-on experience she would get in my clinic.  In the end, we agreed to a split clinical with the student in my clinic two days per week for ten weeks.  This student had displayed entry level skills in previous clinicals and her advisor was not concerned that she would not be working independently or even with just supervision.

 


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Upcoming Continuing Education Courses

Bowel Pathology and Function - Torrance, CA
Nov 08, 2014 - Nov 09, 2014
Location: HealthCare Partners - Torrance

Pelvic Floor Level 1 - San Diego, CA (SOLD OUT)
Nov 14, 2014 - Nov 16, 2014
Location: FunctionSmart Physical Therapy

Mindfulness- Based Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain - Seattle, WA
Nov 15, 2014 - Nov 16, 2014
Location: Swedish Hospital - Cherry Hill Campus

Yoga as Medicine for Pregnancy - New York, NY
Nov 16, 2014 - Nov 17, 2014
Location: Touro College

Pelvic Floor Level 2B - St. Louis, MO (SOLD OUT)
Dec 05, 2014 - Dec 07, 2014
Location: Washington University School of Medicine

Pelvic Floor Level 1 - Omaha, NE (SOLD OUT!)
Dec 05, 2014 - Dec 07, 2014
Location: Methodist Physicians Clinic

Pelvic Floor Level 3 - Derby, CT
Dec 12, 2014 - Dec 14, 2014
Location: Griffin Hospital

Pelvic Floor Level 1 - Oakland, CA (SOLD OUT)
Jan 09, 2015 - Jan 11, 2015
Location: Samuel Merritt University

Care of the Postpartum Patient - Santa Barbara, CA
Jan 10, 2015 - Jan 11, 2015
Location: Human Performace Center

Visceral Mobilization of the Urologic System - Fairlawn, NJ
Jan 16, 2015 - Jan 18, 2015
Location: Bella Physical Therapy

Sexual Medicine for Men and Women - Houston, TX
Jan 23, 2015 - Jan 25, 2015
Location: Women's Hospital of Texas

Pelvic Floor Level 1 - Maywood, IL
Jan 23, 2015 - Jan 25, 2015
Location: Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine

Sacroiliac Joint Evaluation and Treatment - Seattle, WA
Jan 24, 2015 - Jan 25, 2015
Location: Pacific Medical Center

Menopause: A Rehabilitation Approach - Orlando, FL
Feb 21, 2015 - Feb 22, 2015
Location: Florida Hospital Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation

Breast Oncology - Phoenix, AZ
Feb 21, 2015 - Feb 22, 2015
Location: Spooner Physical Therapy