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Resources for Providers of Pelvic Rehabilitation

The following list includes textbooks, websites, and scholarly articles that pelvic rehabilitations providers may find useful in professional development and learning. If an article is available to the public (such as in PubMed Central), a link may be provided.

 

Text Books

Boissonnault, W. (2011). Primary Care for the Physical Therapist (2nd Edition ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.

Bø, K., Berghmans, B., Mørkved, S., & Kampen Van, M. (2007). Evidence-based physical physical therapy for the pelvic floor. Bridging science and clinical practice Evidence-based physical physical therapy for the pelvic floor. Bridging science and clinical practice B2 - Evidence-based physical physical therapy for the pelvic floor. Bridging science and clinical practice. New York: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.

Ciccone, C. (2007). Pharmacology in Rehabilitation. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.

Dorey, G. (2006). Pelvic Dysfunction in Men: Diagnosis and Treatment of Male Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction Pelvic Dysfunction in Men: Diagnosis and Treatment of Male Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Drake, R. (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone.

Dutton, M. (2012). Dutton's Orthopaedic Examination, Evaluation, and Intervention (Third ed.): McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Goodman, C. C., & Snyder, T. E. K. (2013). Differential diagnosis for physical therapists: Screening for referral (5th ed.): St. Louis, Missourri: Saunders/Elsevier.

Irion, J. M., & Irion, G. L. (2010). Women's Health in Physical Therapy. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lee, D., & Lee, L.-J. (2011). The Pelvic Girdle: An Integration of Clinical Expertise and Research (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier, Ltd.

 

Websites

Bowel Health & Dysfunction

http://www.iffgd.org

http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/ibs/

http://www.motilitysociety.org

http://www.romecriteria.org

 

General Medical & Health websites

http://www.webmd.com

http://www.patient.co.uk

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/default.aspx

http://www.mayoclinic.com

http://www.healthychildren.org/english/Pages/default.aspx

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org

http://www.cochrane.org

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html

 

Men’s Health Issues

http://www.pcf.org/site/c.leJRIROrEpH/b.5699537/k.BEF4/Home.htm

 

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

http://www.acog.org

http://www.ahrq.gov/news/newsletters/research-activities/jul12/0712RA3.html

http://www.augs.org

http://www.voicesforpfd.org

http://www.iuga.org

 

Pelvic Pain

http://www.pelvicpain.org

http://www.nva.org/index.html

http://www.worldcongresslbp.com

 

Urinary Health & Dysfunction

http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov//a-z.aspx

http://www.urologyhealth.org

http://www.auanet.org

http://www.uroweb.org

 

Women’s Health Issues

http://www.womenshealthapta.org

http://www.womenshealth.gov/index.html

https://netforum.avectra.com/eWeb/StartPage.aspx?Site=ISSVD

 

Articles

Many publishers for peer-reviewed articles will make abstracts or full texts available for a period of time. It may be the case that links to articles below have expired. If you encounter such a link, search for the article on a service such as Google Scholar or PubMed.

 

Biofeedback for Constipation

Enck, P., Van der Voort, I. R., & Klosterhalfen, S. (2009). Biofeedback therapy in fecal incontinence and constipation. Neurogastroenterology & Motility,21(11), 1133-1141. Full text.

Lee, H. J., Jung, K. W., & Myung, S. J. (2013). Technique of Functional and Motility Test: How to Perform Biofeedback for Constipation and Fecal Incontinence. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility19(4), 532-537. Full text.

Lee, B. H., Kim, N., Kang, S. B., Kim, S. Y., Lee, K. H., Im, B. Y., ... & Lee, D. H. (2010). The long-term clinical efficacy of biofeedback therapy for patients with constipation or fecal incontinence. Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility16(2), 177-185.

 

Biofeedback for Fecal Incontinence

Boselli, A. S., Pinna, F., Cecchini, S., Costi, R., Marchesi, F., Violi, V., ... & Roncoroni, L. (2010). Biofeedback Therapy Plus Anal Electrostimulation for Fecal Incontinence: Prognostic Factors and Effects on Anorectal Physiology. World Journal of Surgery34, 815-821. Abstract.

Enck, P., Van der Voort, I. R., & Klosterhalfen, S. (2009). Biofeedback therapy in fecal incontinence and constipation. Neurogastroenterology & Motility,21(11), 1133-1141. Full text. 

Lee, H. J., Jung, K. W., & Myung, S. J. (2013). Technique of Functional and Motility Test: How to Perform Biofeedback for Constipation and Fecal Incontinence. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility19(4), 532-537. Full text.

Lee, B. H., Kim, N., Kang, S. B., Kim, S. Y., Lee, K. H., Im, B. Y., ... & Lee, D. H. (2010). The long-term clinical efficacy of biofeedback therapy for patients with constipation or fecal incontinence. Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility16(2), 177-185.

Norton, C., Chelvanayagam, S., Wilson-Barnett, J., Redfern, S., & Kamm, M. A. (2003). Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback for fecal incontinence.Gastroenterology125(5), 1320-1329. Full text. 

Norton, C., & Kamm, M. A. (2001). Anal sphincter biofeedback and pelvic floor exercises for faecal incontinence in adults—a systematic review. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 15(8), 1147-1154. Full Text.

 

Botox for Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

Apostolidis, A., Dasgupta, P., Denys, P., Elneil, S., Fowler, C. J., Giannantoni, A., ... & Wyndaele, J. J. (2009). Recommendations on the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of lower urinary tract disorders and pelvic floor dysfunctions: a European consensus report. European urology, 55(1), 100-120.

 

Electrical Stimulation for Fecal Incontinence

Boselli, A. S., Pinna, F., Cecchini, S., Costi, R., Marchesi, F., Violi, V., ... & Roncoroni, L. (2010). Biofeedback Therapy Plus Anal Electrostimulation for Fecal Incontinence: Prognostic Factors and Effects on Anorectal Physiology. World Journal of Surgery34, 815-821. Abstract.

Mellgren, A., Wexner, S. D., Coller, J. A., Devroede, G., Lerew, D. R., Madoff, R. D., & Hull, T. (2011). Long-term efficacy and safety of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum54(9), 1065-1075.

Thomas, G. P., Dudding, T. C., Nicholls, R. J., & Vaizey, C. J. (2013). Bilateral transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Diseases of the colon and rectum56(9), 1075-1079. Abstract.

Uluda?, Ö., Koch, S. M. P., Vliegen, R. F., Dejong, C. H. C., van Gemert, W. G., & Baeten, C. G. M. I. (2010). Sacral neuromodulation: does it affect the rectoanal angle in patients with fecal incontinence?. World journal of surgery34(5), 1109-1114.

 

Fecal Incontinence in Adults

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., ... & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics29(1), 213-240.

Bharucha, A. E., Zinsmeister, A. R., Schleck, C. D., & Melton, L. J. (2010). Bowel disturbances are the most important risk factors for late onset fecal incontinence: a population-based case-control study in women. Gastroenterology, 139(5), 1559-1566. Full text.

Bharucha, A. E., Daube, J., Litchy, W., Traue, J., Edge, J., Enck, P., & Zinsmeister, A. R. (2012). Anal sphincteric neurogenic injury in asymptomatic nulliparous women and fecal incontinence. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 303(2), G256-G262. Full Text.

Bharucha, A. E., Fletcher, J. G., Melton, L. J., & Zinsmeister, A. R. (2012). Obstetric Trauma, Pelvic Floor Injury and Fecal Incontinence: A Population-Based Case–Control Study. The American journal of gastroenterology, 107(6), 902-911. Full Text.

Bischoff, A., Levitt, M. A., Bauer, C., Jackson, L., Holder, M., & Peña, A. (2009). Treatment of fecal incontinence with a comprehensive bowel management program. Journal of pediatric surgery, 44(6), 1278-1284. Full Text.

Bliss, D. Z., Savik, K., Jung, H. J. G., Whitebird, R., & Lowry, A. (2011). Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence. Nursing research, 60(3 Suppl), S58. Full Text.

Bols, E. M., Berghmans, B. C., de Bie, R. A., Govaert, B., van Wunnik, B., Heymans, M. W., ... & Baeten, C. G. (2011). RECTAL BALLOON TRAINING AS ADD-ON THERAPY TO PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE TRAINING IN ADULTS WITH FAECAL INCONTINENCE: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.PELVIC PHYSIOTHERAPY IN FAECAL INCONTINENCE, 137.

Bols, E., Hendriks, E., de Bie, R., Baeten, C., & Berghmans, B. (2012). Predictors of a favorable outcome of physiotherapy in fecal incontinence: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Neurourology and Urodynamics,31(7), 1156-1160. Abstract.

Burgers, R., Reitsma, J. B., Bongers, M. E., de Lorijn, F., & Benninga, M. A. (2012). Functional Nonretentive Fecal Incontinence: Do Enemas Help?. The Journal of pediatrics. Abstract.

Chiarioni, G., Palsson, O. S., Asteria, C. R., & Whitehead, W. E. (2013). Neuromodulation for fecal incontinence: An effective surgical intervention.World J Gastroenterol19(41), 7048-7054. Full text.

Dodi, G., Jongen, J., de la Portilla, F., Raval, M., Altomare, D. F., & Lehur, P. A. (2010). An open-label, noncomparative, multicenter study to evaluate efficacy and safety of NASHA/Dx gel as a bulking agent for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology research and practice, 2010. Full Text.

Halland, M., Koloski, N. A., Jones, M., Byles, J., Chiarelli, P., Forder, P., & Talley, N. J. (2013). Prevalence correlates and impact of fecal incontinence among older women. Diseases of the colon and rectum, 56(9), 1080-1086. Abstract.

Hong, K. D., Dasilva, G., Kalaskar, S. N., Chong, Y., & Wexner, S. D. (2013). Long-Term Outcomes of Artificial Bowel Sphincter for Fecal Incontinence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 217(4), 718-725. Abstract.

Lewicky-Gaupp, C., Brincat, C., Yousuf, A., Patel, D. A., Delancey, J. O., & Fenner, D. E. (2010). Fecal incontinence in older women: are levator ani defects a factor?. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 202(5), 491-e1. Full Text.

Markland, A. D., Richter, H. E., Burgio, K. L., Myers, D. L., Hernandez, A. L., & Subak, L. L. (2011). Weight loss improves fecal incontinence severity in overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. International urogynecology journal, 22(9), 1151-1157. Full Text.

Markland, A. D., Goode, P. S., Burgio, K. L., Redden, D. T., Richter, H. E., Sawyer, P., & Allman, R. M. (2010). Incidence and Risk Factors for Fecal Incontinence in Black and White Older Adults: A Population?Based Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(7), 1341-1346. Full Text.

Markland, A. D., Greer, W. J., Vogt, A., Redden, D. T., Goode, P. S., Burgio, K. L., & Richter, H. E. (2010). Factors impacting quality of life in women with fecal incontinence. Diseases of the colon and rectum, 53(8), 1148. Full Text.

Norton, C., & Kamm, M. A. (2001). Anal sphincter biofeedback and pelvic floor exercises for faecal incontinence in adults—a systematic review. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 15(8), 1147-1154. Full Text.

Rao, S. S. (2010). Advances in diagnostic assessment of fecal incontinence and dyssynergic defecation. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 8(11), 910-919. Full article.

Rey, E., Choung, R. S., Schleck, C. D., Zinsmeister, A. R., Locke, G. R., & Talley, N. J. (2009). Onset and risk factors for fecal incontinence in a US community. The American journal of gastroenterology, 105(2), 412-419. Full Text.

Saga, S., Vinsnes, A. G., Mørkved, S., Norton, C., & Seim, A. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of fecal incontinence among nursing home residents: a population-based cross-sectional study. BMC geriatrics13(1), 1-10. Full text. 

Shah, B. J., Chokhavatia, S., & Rose, S. (2012). Fecal Incontinence in the Elderly: FAQ. The American journal of gastroenterology. Full Text.

Soerensen, M. M., Buntzen, S., Bek, K. M., & Laurberg, S. (2013). Complete Obstetric Anal Sphincter Tear and Risk of Long-term Fecal Incontinence: A Cohort Study. Diseases of the colon and rectum, 56(8), 992-1001. Abstract.

Townsend, M. K., Matthews, C. A., Whitehead, W. E., & Grodstein, F. (2012). Risk factors for fecal incontinence in older women. The American journal of gastroenterology, 108(1), 113-119. Full Text.

Whitehead, W. E., Borrud, L., Goode, P. S., Meikle, S., Mueller, E. R., Tuteja, A., ... & Ye, W. (2009). Fecal incontinence in US adults: epidemiology and risk factors. Gastroenterology, 137(2), 512-517. Full Text.

 

Fecal Incontinence in Pediatrics

Bongers, M. E., van Dijk, M., Benninga, M. A., & Grootenhuis, M. A. (2009). Health related quality of life in children with constipation-associated fecal incontinence. The Journal of pediatrics, 154(5), 749-753.

 

Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

Nygaard, I., Barber, M. D., Burgio, K. L., Kenton, K., Meikle, S., Schaffer, J., ... & Brody, D. J. (2008). Prevalence of symptomatic pelvic floor disorders in US women. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 300(11), 1311-1316. Full Text.

Rosier, P. F., De Ridder, D., Meijlink, J., Webb, R., Whitmore, K., & Drake, M. J. (2012). Developing evidence?based standards for diagnosis and management of lower urinary tract or pelvic floor dysfunction. Neurourology and Urodynamics31(5), 621-624. Full Text.

 

Female Urinary Incontinence

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., ... & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics29(1), 213-240. Full text.

Bø, K. (2004). Pelvic floor muscle training is effective in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, but how does it work?. International Urogynecology Journal, 15(2), 76-84. Full Text.

Bø, K., & Herbert, R. D. (2013). There is not yet strong evidence that exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training can reduce stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review. Journal of physiotherapy59(3), 159-168. Full Text.

Da Roza, T., de Araujo, M. P., Viana, R., Viana, S., Jorge, R. N., Bø, K., & Mascarenhas, T. (2012). Pelvic floor muscle training to improve urinary incontinence in young, nulliparous sport students: a pilot study. International urogynecology journal23(8), 1069-1073. Full Text.

Goode, P. S., Burgio, K. L., Locher, J. L., Roth, D. L., Umlauf, M. G., Richter, H. E., ... & Lloyd, L. K. (2003). Effect of behavioral training with or without pelvic floor electrical stimulation on stress incontinence in women. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 290(3), 345-352. Full Text.

Mørkved, S., Bø, K., & Fjørtoft, T. (2002). Effect of adding biofeedback to pelvic floor muscle training to treat urodynamic stress incontinence. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 100(4), 730-739. Full Text.

Schierlitz, L., Dwyer, P. L., Rosamilia, A., Murray, C., Thomas, E., De Souza, A., & Hiscock, R. (2012). Three-year follow-up of tension-free vaginal tape compared with transobturator tape in women with stress urinary incontinence and intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Obstetrics & Gynecology119(2, Part 1), 321-327. Full Text.

 

Interstitial Cystitis

FitzGerald, M. P., Payne, C. K., Lukacz, E. S., Yang, C. C., Peters, K. M., Chai, T. C., ... & Nyberg, L. M. (2012). Randomized multicenter clinical trial of myofascial physical therapy in women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and pelvic floor tenderness. The Journal of urology187(6), 2113-2118. Full Text

Weiss, J. M. (2001). Pelvic floor myofascial trigger points: manual therapy for interstitial cystitis and the urgency-frequency syndrome. The Journal of urology, 166(6), 2226-2231.
Full Text.

 

Male Chronic Pelvic Pain

Clemens, J. Q., Nadler, R. B., Schaeffer, A. J., Belani, J., Albaugh, J., & Bushman, W. (2000). Biofeedback, pelvic floor re-education, and bladder training for male chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Urology, 56(6), 951-955. Full Text.

Lee, K. S., & Choi, J. D. (2012). Chronic prostatitis: approaches for best management. Korean journal of urology53(2), 69-77. Full Text.

 

Male Urinary Dysfunction (see also Post-Prostatectomy Incontinence)

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., ... & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics29(1), 213-240. Full text.

Chau, V. R., Maxson, P. M., Joswiak, M. E., & Elliott, D. S. (2013). Male Sling Procedures for Stress Urinary Incontinence. Urologic nursing33(1), 9. Full text.

Drake, M. J. (2012). Male lower urinary tract symptoms associated with overactive bladder. Canadian Urological Association Journal6(5 Suppl 2), S136. Full text.

Hoda, M. R., Primus, G., Fischereder, K., Heyden, B., Mohammed, N., Schmid, N., ... & Bauer, W. (2013). Early results of a European multicentre experience with a new self?anchoring adjustable transobturator system for treatment of stress urinary incontinence in men. BJU international111(2), 296-303. Full text. 

Kaufman, M. R. (2013). Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence in the Neobladder Patient. Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports, 1-9. Abstract.

Lucas, M., Bosch, R. J., Burkhard, F. C., Cruz, F., Madden, T. B., Nambiar, A., ... & Turner, W. H. (2012). EAU guidelines on surgical treatment of urinary incontinence. European urology. Full text.

Mehnert, U., Bastien, L., Denys, P., Cardot, V., Even-Schneider, A., Kocer, S., & Chartier-Kastler, E. (2012). Treatment of neurogenic stress urinary incontinence using an adjustable continence device: 4-Year followup. The Journal of urology. Full text. 

Oelke, M., Bachmann, A., Descazeaud, A., Emberton, M., Gravas, S., Michel, M. C., ... & de la Rosette, J. J. (2013). EAU guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms including benign prostatic obstruction. European urology. Full article.

Seweryn, J., Bauer, W., Ponholzer, A., & Schramek, P. (2012). Initial experience and results with a new adjustable transobturator male system for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. The Journal of urology187(3), 956-961.
Full text. 

Trost, L., & Elliott, D. S. (2012). Male stress urinary incontinence: a review of surgical treatment options and outcomes. Advances in urology2012. Full text.

Van der Aa, F., Drake, M. J., Kasyan, G. R., Petrolekas, A., & Cornu, J. N. (2012). The Artificial Urinary Sphincter After a Quarter of a Century: A Critical Systematic Review of Its Use in Male Non-neurogenic Incontinence. European urology. Full text. 

Vaughan, C. P., Johnson II, T. M., Goode, P. S., Redden, D. T., Burgio, K. L., & Markland, A. D. (2013). Military Exposure and Urinary Incontinence Among American Men. The Journal of urology. Abstract.

 

Outcomes Measures

Barber, M. D., Walters, M. D., & Bump, R. C. (2005). Short forms of two condition-specific quality-of-life questionnaires for women with pelvic floor disorders (PFDI-20 and PFIQ-7). American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 193(1), 103-113. Full Text.

 

Pelvic Floor Anatomy

Ashton Miller, J. A., & DeLancey, J. O. H. N. (2007). Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1101(1), 266-296.
Full Text.

Dietz, H. P., Shek, C., & Clarke, B. (2005). Biometry of the pubovisceral muscle and levator hiatus by three?dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology, 25(6), 580-585. Full Text.

 

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., ... & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics, 29(1), 213-240. Full Text.

Faubion, S. S., Shuster, L. T., & Bharucha, A. E. (2012, February). Recognition and management of nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 187-193). Elsevier. Full Text

Heilbrun, M. E., Nygaard, I. E., Lockhart, M. E., Richter, H. E., Brown, M. B., Kenton, K. S., ... & Delancey, J. O. (2010). Correlation between levator ani muscle injuries on MRI and fecal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and urinary incontinence in primiparous women. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 202(5), 488-e1. Full Text.

Schnelle, J. F., Leung, F. W., Rao, S. S., Beuscher, L., Keeler, E., Clift, J. W., & Simmons, S. (2010). A controlled trial of an intervention to improve urinary and fecal incontinence and constipation. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(8), 1504-1511. Full Text.

 

Pelvic Floor Imaging

Bertschinger, K. M., Hetzer, F. H., Roos, J. E., Treiber, K., Marincek, B., & Hilfiker, P. R. (2002). Dynamic MR Imaging of the Pelvic Floor Performed with Patient Sitting in an Open-Magnet Unit versus with Patient Supine in a Closed-Magnet Unit1. Radiology, 223(2), 501-508. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P. (2004). Ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor. Part I: two?dimensional aspects. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology, 23(1), 80-92. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P. (2010). Pelvic floor ultrasound: a review. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 202(4), 321-334. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P. (2004). Ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor. Part II: three?dimensional or volume imaging. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology, 23(6), 615-625. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P., Steensma, A. B., & Hastings, R. (2003). Three?dimensional ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor: the effect of parturition on paravaginal support structures. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology, 21(6), 589-595. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P., & Shek, K. L. (2009). Tomographic ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor: which levels matter most?. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 33(6), 698-703. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P. (2004). Ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor. Part II: three?dimensional or volume imaging. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology, 23(6), 615-625. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P., Shek, C., & Clarke, B. (2005). Biometry of the pubovisceral muscle and levator hiatus by three?dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology, 25(6), 580-585. Full Text.

Law, Y. M., & Fielding, J. R. (2008). MRI of pelvic floor dysfunction: review.American Journal of Roentgenology191(6 Supplement), S45-S53. Full Text.

Stoker, J., Halligan, S., & Bartram, C. I. (2001). Pelvic Floor Imaging1. Radiology, 218(3), 621-641. Full Text.

 

Pelvic Floor Terminology

Bump, R. C., Mattiasson, A., Bø, K., Brubaker, L. P., DeLancey, J. O., Klarskov, P., ... & Smith, A. R. (1996). The standardization of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 175(1), 10-17. Full Text.

Haylen, B. T., De Ridder, D., Freeman, R. M., Swift, S. E., Berghmans, B., Lee, J., ... & Schaer, G. N. (2010). An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. International urogynecology journal, 21(1), 5-26. Full Text.

Weber, A. M., Abrams, P., Brubaker, L., Cundiff, G., Davis, G., Dmochowski, R. R., ... & Weidner, A. C. (2001). The standardization of terminology for researchers in female pelvic floor disorders. International Urogynecology Journal, 12(3), 178-186. Full Text.

 

Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Relaxation

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., ... & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics29(1), 213-240. Full text.

Dietz, H. P., & Simpson, J. M. (2008). Levator trauma is associated with pelvic organ prolapse. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 115(8), 979-984. Full Text.

Zeleke, B. M., Ayele, T. A., Woldetsadik, M. A., Bisetegn, T. A., & Adane, A. A. (2013). Depression among women with obstetric fistula, and pelvic organ prolapse in northwest Ethiopia. BMC psychiatry13(1), 1-5. Full Text.

 

Pelvic Pain

Hunter, C., Davé, N., Diwan, S., & Deer, T. (2013). Neuromodulation of pelvic visceral pain: review of the literature and case series of potential novel targets for treatment. Pain Practice13(1), 3-17. Full Text.

Vahdatpour, B., Alizadeh, F., Moayednia, A., Emadi, M., Khorami, M. H., & Haghdani, S. (2013). Efficacy of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.ISRN urology2013. Full Text.

 

Peripartum and Childbirth-related Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

Åhlund, S., Nordgren, B., Wilander, E. L., Wiklund, I., & Fridén, C. (2013). Is home?based pelvic floor muscle training effective in treatment of urinary incontinence after birth in primiparous women? A randomized controlled trial.Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. Abstract.

Bols, E. M., Hendriks, E. J., Berghmans, B., Baeten, C. G., Nijhuis, J. G., & De Bie, R. A. (2010). A systematic review of etiological factors for postpartum fecal incontinence. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica, 89(3), 302-314. Full Text.

Da Roza, T., de Araujo, M. P., Viana, R., Viana, S., Jorge, R. N., Bø, K., & Mascarenhas, T. (2012). Pelvic floor muscle training to improve urinary incontinence in young, nulliparous sport students: a pilot study. International urogynecology journal23(8), 1069-1073. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P. (2006). Pelvic floor trauma following vaginal delivery. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 18(5), 528-537. Full Text.

Lukacz, E. S., Lawrence, J. M., Contreras, R., Nager, C. W., & Luber, K. M. (2006). Parity, mode of delivery, and pelvic floor disorders. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 107(6), 1253-1260. Full Text.

MacLennan, A. H., Taylor, A. W., Wilson, D. H., & Wilson, D. (2000). The prevalence of pelvic floor disorders and their relationship to gender, age, parity and mode of delivery. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 107(12), 1460-1470. Full Text.

Mørkved, S., Bø, K., Schei, B., & Salvesen, K. Å. (2003). Pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy to prevent urinary incontinence: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 101(2), 313-319. Full Text.

Mørkved, S., & Bø, K. (2000). Effect of postpartum pelvic floor muscle training in prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence: a one?year follow up. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 107(8), 1022-1028. Full Text.

Reilly, E. T. C., Freeman, R. M., Waterfield, M. R., Waterfield, A. E., Steggles, P., & Pedlar, F. (2002). Prevention of postpartum stress incontinence in primigravidae with increased bladder neck mobility: a randomised controlled trial of antenatal pelvic floor exercises. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 109(1), 68-76. Full Text.

Rømmen, K., Schei, B., Rydning, A., Daltveit, A. K., Sultan, A., & Mørkved, S. (2012). Prevalence of fecal incontinence after vaginal deliveries versus caesarean sections. Neurourol Urodyn, 31, 767. Abstract.

Salvesen, K. Å., & Mørkved, S. (2004). Randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 329(7462), 378. Full Text.

Stafne, S. N., Salvesen, K. Å., Romundstad, P. R., Torjusen, I. H., & Mørkved, S. (2012). Does regular exercise including pelvic floor muscle training prevent urinary and anal incontinence during pregnancy? A randomised controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology,119(10), 1270-1280. Abstract.

 

Post-prostatectomy Incontinence

Campbell, S. E., Glazener, C. M. A., Hunter, K. F., Cody, J. D., & Moore, K. N. (2012). Conservative management for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (Review). Full text.

Filocamo, M. T., Li Marzi, V., Popolo, G. D., Cecconi, F., Marzocco, M., Tosto, A., & Nicita, G. (2005). Effectiveness of early pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment for post-prostatectomy incontinence. European urology, 48(5), 734-738. Full Text.

Utomo, E., Groen, J., Vroom, I. H., van Mastrigt, R., & Blok, B. F. (2013). Urodynamic Effects of Volume-adjustable Balloons for Treatment of Postprostatectomy Urinary Incontinence. Urology. Abstract.

Kampen, M., De Weerdt, W. V. P. H., Van Poppel, H., De Ridder, D., Feys, H., & Baert, L. (2000). Effect of pelvic-floor re-education on duration and degree of incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 355(9198), 98-102.
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