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The Sacroiliac Joint: A persuasive Argument for How We Diagnose and Treat

Herman & Wallace faculty member Eric Dinkins, PT, MS, OCS, Cert. MT, MCTA teaches the Manual Therapy for the Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex: Mobilization with Movement and Laser-Guided Feedback for Core Stabilization course for Herman & Wallace. He is one of only 13 practitioners in America credentialed to teach the Mulligan Concept of Manual Therapy, and is a published author. Join him in Arlington, VA on August 20-21, 2016 to learn new joint mobilization, evaluation, and treatment skills.

Much research has been published regarding evaluation and diagnosis of the Sacroiliac Joint (SIJ). Low back pain and pelvic girdle pain is a common complaint with patients in all clinic settings. Laslett (Manual Therapy 2005) gave our profession valuable insight into categorizing a cluster of tests to try to ensure Physical Therapists and Chiropractors know if the SI joint is a pain source of our patients. We now also have several articles reaffirming the validity of the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) and Stork testing for SIJ dysfunction (Manual Therapy 2008; JBMR 2012; PT 2007). However, after talking with clinicians who attend my Mobilization with Movement classes, as well as many colleagues in the outpatient orthopedic setting, there is a definitive lack of understanding how to use this information to translate over to successful treatment. This is understandable considering there have been several articles published regarding the poor validity and consistency between clinicians regarding palpation skills and bony landmarks in the lumbar spine and pelvis (ex: Manual Therapy 2012). But perhaps the fault is not in the clinician proficiency, but rather in the nature that we are attempting to diagnose an SIJ dysfunction?

If you were to consult with experts in body kinematics, gait analysis, and biomechanics regarding the true movement of the SIJ, there will be many different answers depending on the action that they were describing. Particularly when it comes to dysfunction. Disagreements abound when describing conditions such as “upslips”, “inflares”, etc and virtually all back their arguments with clinical anecdotal success rates. These arguments often leave clinicians with inconsistencies in treatment and increased failures.

This blog is meant to be a persuasive argument for using function-improving or pain- eliminating techniques for diagnosis and treatment of SIJ dysfunction. The logic of this approach is often misunderstood. But if applied correctly, satisfies most theory surrounding the SIJ, and provides immediate feedback for knowing how to resolve the condition and what you are treating.

We have pain provocative testing that is most commonly used in attempting to diagnose a SIJ dysfunction. However, after interpreting these tests, the clinician is still left without a true diagnosis as to the nature of what is happening at this joint to cause pain or dysfunction. This is likened to the "painful shoulder" or "low back pain" prescription we see. The error rates, even in the cluster, still leaves room for inaccurate assessment and therefore potential misguided treatment. Lumbar facet, musculature, hip capsule imbalance, are just some examples that can produce false positives on the typical SIJ tests that are used in clinic. Therefore, it is necessary to understand that pain provocative testing ONLY tells us that pain is coming from that structure that is being tested. And NOT that it is “THE” source of the dysfunction.

Now consider using function-improving or pain-eliminating techniques for your evaluation. The ALSR test, as an example, function improving special test. Compression applied to various aspects of the pelvis or supporting musculature yield a positive finding if the SLR is now easier if the force is applied. Combing this information with the faulty kinetic testing of the Stork and/or leg pull test to determine the involved side yield an immediate feedback for both the clinician and the patient as to what forces are needed to correct the dysfunction that is limiting the functional activity and restore normal motion. Treatment would then be applied by creating a force on the innominate, sacrum, or both and would then be maintained throughout the movement and can be considered a form of active exercise (manual assisted active exercise). If retesting of the affected motion yields a sustained improvement, the accurate diagnosis has now been made. And surely this diagnosis would be upheld if the patient returned at a later date to demonstrate no regression occurred.

If the force applied to the pelvis was directed toward posterior rotation at the innominate and/or an anterior rotation at the sacrum, and the affected motion cleared without pain or limited motion, it would be confirmed that these forces were necessary to correct the dysfunction on the involved side regardless of the "ambiguous diagnosis' including the potential of a previously held thought of an anterior rotation of the pelvis (making the argument of what actually happened at the pelvis mute). This may have been achieved through altering inputs viewed as a potential "threat" by the system, or mechanics stresses, etc. Regardless, if manual correction of this condition was applied and the dysfunction was correction through re-creating this without pain, one would conclude that this dysfunction was the primary eitiology of the symptoms. If the symptoms returned or the functional test was not normalized, an easy conclusion would then be that despite manual correction eliminating pain during the activity, this correction was not addressing the source of the dysfunction. And therefore the clinician should consider treatment elsewhere.

In essence, the body is capable of directing what it needs in order to return to a normal functioning homeostasis…without the application of pain. Now this pain-eliminating testing becomes your assessment, treatment and potentially your home exercise program!

To conclude, it is my suggestion to all manual based physiotherapists and chiropractors to strongly consider pain-eliminating techniques for both evaluation and treatment in their practice.
Did I mention yet that your patient already voted for that….?


Laslett, M, et al. "Diagnosis of Sacroiliac Joint Pain: Validity of individual provocation tests and composites of tests" Manual Therapy 10 (2005) 207-218
M. de Groot, et al. "The active straight leg raising test (ASLR) in pregnant women: Differences in muscle activity and force between patients and health subjects" Manual Therapy 13 (2008) 68-74
Hungerford, B, et al. "Evaluation of the Ability of Physical Therapists to Palpate Intrapelvic Motion with the Stork Test on the Support Side" Phys Ther. 2007 Jul;87(7):879-87.
O'Surrivan PB, Beales DJ. "Diagnosis and classification of pelvic girdle pain disorders—Part 1: A mechanism based approach within a biopsychosocial framework" Man Ther. 2007 May;12(2):86-97.
Arab AM, Abdollahi I, Joghataei MT, Golafshani Z, Kazemnejad A. "Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of single and composites of selected motion palpation and pain provocation tests for sacroiliac joint" Man Ther. 2009 Apr;14(2):213-21. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2008.02.004. Epub 2008 Mar 25.

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Meet the Instructor of Manual Therapy for the Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex

This post features an interview with Eric Dinkins, PT, MSPT, OCS, MCTA, CMP, Cert. MT, who will be instructing the brand new course, Manual Therapy for the Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex: Mobilization with Movement including Laser-Guided Feedback for Core Stabilization. Pelvic Rehab Report sat down with Eric to learn a little bit more about his course and his clinical approach

Eric Dinkins

Can you describe the clinical/treatment approach/techniques covered in this continuing education course?

During this two day lab based course, clinicians will learn anatomy, assessment techniques, and manual therapy techniques that are designed to minimize pain and restore function immediately. As a bonus, clinicians will be introduced to stabilization exercises utilizing the Motion Guidance visual feedback system for these areas. This system allows for immediate feedback for both the clinician and the patient on determining preferred or substituted movement patterns, and enhancing motor learning to quickly address these patterns if desired.

What inspired you to create this course?

Women's and Men's health patients often have concurrent orthopedic problems that contribute to the pain or dysfunction that they are experiencing in the lumbar spine, pelvis, hips and sexual organs. There are few manual therapy courses offered that are able to bridge a gap between these two topics. This makes for a unique opportunity to offer manual therapy techniques that can address these problems and help improve clinic outcomes.

What resources and research were used when writing this course?

The books and resources I pulled from include:

Mulligan Concept of Manual Therapy 2015

Travell and Simmons Volume 2. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual. The Lower Extremities

Principles of Manual Medicine 4th Edition

www.motionguidance.com

Why should a therapist take this course? How can these skill sets benefit his/ her practice?

PT's, PTA, DO's and DC's should take this course to give them knowledge and manual skills of pain free techniques to offer their Women's Health, Men's Health, and pregnancy patients with orthopedic conditions.

 

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Upcoming Continuing Education Courses

Boundaries, Self-Care, and Meditation - Remote Course

May 22, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: Replacement Remote Course

Oncology of the Pelvic Floor Level 1 - Remote Course

May 26, 2020 - Jun 4, 2020
Location: Replacement Remote Course

Pelvic Floor Level 1 Part 1 - Remote Course (SOLD OUT)

May 28, 2020 - May 29, 2020
Location: Short Form Remote Course

Pelvic Floor Level 1 - Chicago, IL (RESCHEDULED)

May 29, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center

Boundaries, Self-Care, and Meditation - Columbus, OH (RESCHEDULED)

May 29, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

Pelvic Floor Level 2A - Syracuse, NY (RESCHEDULED)

May 29, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: SUNY Upstate Medical University

Gender Diversity and Pelvic Health - Livingston, NJ (RESCHEDULED)

May 29, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: Ambulatory Care Center- RWJ Barnabas Health

Pelvic Floor Level 2B - Maywood, IL (Rescheduled)

May 29, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: Loyola University Health System

Sexual Medicine in Pelvic Rehab - Remote Course

May 30, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: Replacement Remote Course

Pregnancy Rehabilitation - Remote Course (SOLD OUT)

May 30, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: Replacement Remote Course

Sacroiliac Joint Evaluation and Treatment - Nashua, NH (RESCHEDULED)

May 30, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: St. Joseph Hospital Rehabilitative Services

Postpartum Rehabilitation - Foothill Ranch, CA (Rescheduled)

May 30, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: Intercore Physical Therapy

Pilates for the Pelvic Floor - Valencia, CA (Rescheduled)

May 30, 2020 - May 31, 2020
Location: Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital

Building Resilience Through Nourishment

Jun 2, 2020
Location: Short Form Remote Course

Pelvic Floor Series Capstone - Salt Lake City, UT (SOLD OUT)

Jun 5, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions

Pelvic Floor Capstone - Remote Course

Jun 5, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: Replacement Remote Course

Pregnancy Rehabilitation - Remote Course (SOLD OUT)

Jun 5, 2020 - Jun 6, 2020
Location: Replacement Remote Course

Pediatric Incontinence - Grand Rapids, MI (RESCHEDULED)

Jun 5, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: Mary Free Bed Rehabilitation Hospital

Pelvic Floor Level 2A - Kansas City, MO (Rescheduled)

Jun 5, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: Centerpoint Medical Center

Pelvic Floor Level 1 - Atlanta, GA (RESCHEDULED)

Jun 5, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: Emory Healthcare

Pelvic Floor Level 1 - Washington, DC (Rescheduled)

Jun 5, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: The George Washington University

Pelvic Floor Level 1- Canton, OH (Rescheduled))

Jun 5, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: Aultman Hospital

Restorative Yoga for Physical Therapists - Remote Course

Jun 6, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: Short Form Remote Course

Pelvic Floor Level 1 Part 1 - Remote Course (SOLD OUT)

Jun 6, 2020 - Jun 7, 2020
Location: Short Form Remote Course

Trauma Informed Care - Remote Course

Jun 6, 2020
Location: Short Form Remote Course

Pelvic Floor Level 1 - Berrien Springs, MI (Rescheduled)

Jun 7, 2020 - Jun 9, 2020
Location: Andrews University

Pelvic Floor Level 2B - Bay Shore, NY (Rescheduled)

Jun 7, 2020 - Jun 9, 2020
Location: Touro College: Bayshore

Pelvic Floor Level 1 Part 1 - Remote Course

Jun 11, 2020 - Jun 12, 2020
Location: Short Form Remote Course